Nobody knows exactly, but probably the first counterfeit dates back since the introduction of the coin in human society. Romans made a series of counterfeits, later on called "legal", by making coins of copper silvered. Roman soldiers fighting in enemy territories were paid with these coins. If they were to be taken prisoners, they did not want to lose gold or silver this way! (...) details... In countries where democracy and market economy are currently strengthening, countries that were led by dictatorial regimes or centralized economies, freedom has lead to a real explosion on the market of services and large consume goods. Taking into account that the legislation for the protection of intellectual property rights and trademarks in these countries appears and is strengthening with time, the state's control bodies do not always manage to fight efficiently against counterfeiting. Cosmetic products, medicines, textiles, food, cellular phones, music or software CDs, spare parts for motor vehicles, these represent a multitude of counterfeited products, thrown on the market, under renowned trademarks, for attractive prices. Who is losing from the sale of these counterfeited products? (...) details...

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•alteration
procedure for the modification of a document with intent to pass it as original with minimum chances of detection


color separation
technique to decompose images on primary colors used for reproduction in printing industry. It is used also for manufacturing plates that counterfeit various documents and reproducing images printed even in science


counterfeit detectors
devices specially conceived for the verification of certain security elements embedded in various products; in general they are black boxes for the passed/dismissed test


fluorescence
visible radiation of substances or materials under the influence of a different radiation such as ultraviolet. It is used as a security element frequently for value papers, as a measure against counterfeiting by copiers


holograms
structures f light diffraction consisting in very thin layers, destined to recreate certain images in two or three dimensions. They are used as security elements on numerous documents and may have various forms

intaglio
printing technique used in security printing consisting in ink coating of paper thickness and viscosity with the help of plates on which the graphical shape is incised under high pressure; due to this pressure and the fact that the paper deforms, this type pf printing can be perceived in relief, by tactile sense. It is frequently used on banknotes and also on various other prints


laser, mechanical perforation
marking procedure for various documents by perforations or microperforations, mechanically generally used for the document a laser spot; it is an irreversible procedure and it is used for seriating documents such as passports


scanning
operation of sequential exposure using a light spot and receiver photocells, ink or toner imprinted on paper, required for the recreation of an image for processing or reproduction purposes. It is used in analog or digital equipment, copiers or scanners, often to create counterfeits or forgeries


security elements
elements embedded in a product in view of increasing its protection against forgeries and counterfeiting. They may be of multiple types (special papers, special inks, security films or holograms, graphical elements) and, in general, they provide protection of the document against a certain type of counterfeiting or forgery attempt


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